Combined Analogue/Digital Integration


CANDI - 2268

Keywords BiCMOS technology, CMOS technology, analogue/digital systems


Start Date: 01-DEC-88 / Duration: 43 months

[ contact / participants ]


Objectives and Approach

The CANDI project aimed to develop the main technologies and implementation techniques needed for the fabrication of complete analogue/digital systems on silicon, exploiting the specific advantages of both bipolar (high-speed components, high driving capability and high-precision analogue circuitry) and CMOS (high integration density and low power consumption) transistors. The final objective was the full integration of technology, design and CAD tools in the fabrication of prototype system components for major fields of application such as consumer electronics and telecommunications.

Progress and Results

In its first phase, the project led to the development of a common 1.2 micron technology starting from a 1.2 micron CMOS process, with five additional mask levels for the incorporation of the bipolar part. The process is characterised by good analogue features (breakdown voltage >14 V, early voltage >50 and -30 V in npn and pnp respectively), by a maximum transit frequency f[t] >8 GHz for the npn, and by f[t] >2.5 GHz for the vertical pnp. The transfer to production has started at ST and TEG.

Work was carried out in the area of CAD tools. In particular, DOSIS and Dortmund University, in collaboration with ST, have developed a layout cross-compilation system that is used to translate layouts of cells, subcircuits or entire circuits implemented in a given technology into layouts of a different version of the same technology. This includes the possibility of converting layouts from a pure CMOS technology into the CMOS part of a BiCMOS technology. Geometrical and electrical relations between the two different technologies are taken into consideration in the translation.

All partners, associated partners and subcontractors have also contributed cells and modules to the common library. The final 1.2 micron databook consists of over 100 cells divided into four main parts: analogue standard cells, digital standard cells, converters, and analogue and digital cells for mixed arrays. For each cell four levels of description and documentation are provided: functional block diagram and description, electrical characteristics, circuit schematics, and layout. A specific cell library database has been developed, containing all relevant data, which can be distributed on VAX computers.

The manufacturability of the process and the design capabilities have been proven through the fabrication of three demonstrators, selected in collaboration with the product divisions:

The second phase of the project led to the development of a 0.8 micron process generation as well as to design techniques that will enable the realisation of highly complex high-performance circuits.

Two technologies were developed, covering complementary market segments. ST has developed a high-speed version with 5 V supply voltage for both CMOS and bipolar, suitable for ASIC, telecommunication and HDTV applications. TEG has developed a technology with high-performance analogue capabilities. The supply voltage is 5 V for CMOS and 9 V for bipolar. This technology addresses radio mobile, automotive, consumer electronic and telecommunication applications. Both technologies are being validated through the realisation of three representative products:

These designs are now being debugged, and the developed technology is being implemented at both manufacturing sites.

Exploitation

Both technology generations are available at the industrial sites for use by customers outside the consortium.


CONTACT POINT

Mr Marcel Roche
SGS-THOMSON MICROELECTRONICS SA
Avenue des Martyrs 17
F - 38019 GRENOBLE CEDEX
tel: + 33/ 76-58 50 00
fax: + 33/ 76-88 51 83

Participants

SGS-THOMSON MICROELECTRONICS SA - F - C
TELEFUNKEN ELECTRONIK GMBH - D - P
FRAUNHOFER-IMSS - D - S
AEG OLYMPIA AG - D - A
PLESSEY COMPANY PLC - UK - A
THOMSON-CSF-LABORATOIRE
ELECTRONIQUE DE RENNES - F - A
ALCATEL STANDARD ELECTRICA SA - E - A


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CANDI - 2268, December 1993


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html version of synopsis by Nick Cook